*Dr.P.Shanmukha Rao **Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana
The safety provisions are absolute and obligatory in their character and the occupier of every factory is bound to follow them. They are contained in Secs.21 to 40 and are summarized as under:
Fencing of machinery
In every factory, every dangerous part of any machinery should be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts of machinery that they are fencing are in motion or in use. The following machineries are covered by Sec.21, viz.
a) Every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to a prime mover.
b) The headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water turbine.
c) Any part of a stock-bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe.
d) Every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary converter.
e) Every part of transmission machinery.
f) Every dangerous part of any other machinery [Sec.21 (1)]
Work on or near machinery in motion
Where in any factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery while the machinery is in motion, such examination shall be made only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing which shall be supplied by the occupier. The name of the person so engaged shall be entered in the prescribed register and he shall be furnished with a certificate of his appointment.
Employment of young persons on dangerous machines
I. No young person shall work on any machine to which this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and
a. Has received sufficient training to work on the machine.
b. Is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine [Sec.23 (1)].
II. The state government shall specify machines which in its opinion are of such a dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with [Sec.23(2)].
Striking gear and devices for cutting off power
I. In every factory, suitable, striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belt to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of transmission machinery. [Sec.24 (1)]
II. Suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinery shall be provided and maintained in every work-room [Sec.24 (2)].
No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall, if the space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to pass, whether in the course of his employment or otherwise, be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of 18 inches from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine.
Casing of new machinery
All machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after 1st April, 1949; every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger. Further, all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing not requiring frequent adjustments while in motion shall be completely encased unless it is safety situated [Sec.26 (1)].
Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers
No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory to press cotton when a cotton-opener is at work. But if the feed-end of a cotton-opener is in a room which is separated from the delivery-end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the factory inspector may specify in writing, women and children may be employed in that part of the room in which the feed-end is situated.
Hoists and Lifts
In every factory, hoists and lifts shall be of good mechanical construction and of sound material; and they shall be sufficiently strong and properly maintained. Every hoist-way and lift way shall be adequately protected by a proper enclosure fitted with gates. The maximum safe working load shall be clearly indicated on every hoist or lift. A heavier load shall not be allowed to be carried on that hoist or lift.
Lifting Machines, Tackles, chains and Ropes
In every factory, lifting machines, tackles, chains and roped shall be of good construction and of sound material. They shall be free from defects and strong enough to carry the necessary loads.
In every room in which grinding jobs are carried on, a notice, indicating the maximum working speed of the machine shall be fixed near it.
In any operation which is carried on at a pressure which is higher than the atmospheric pressure, effective measures should be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure is not exceed.
Floors, stairs, and other means of access
All doors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and shall be kept and maintained in a state of good repair; and they shall be free of obstructions. No substance, which is likely to cause a person to slip, shall be kept near them. Necessary provisions should be made for a secure handhold or fencing to ensure the safety of persons working at a place from where he is likely to fall from a distance exceeding two meters.
Precautions against Dangerous Fumes
No person employed in a factory shall be allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, flue or such other confined place in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present.
Explosive of Inflammable Gas or Dust
When, in any factory, any manufacturing process procedures dust, gas, fume or vapour of such nature and to such an extent that is likely to explode on ignition, all practical measures shall be taken to prevent such explosion by:
a) An effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process;
b) The removal or prevention of accumulated dust, gas or fume; and
c) The exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.
*Dr. SHANMUKHA PADALA : The author is a well qualified and posses Vast teaching experience in Field of Management. He has great interest in the field of Human Resource Management and Accountancy. Now he is working as Faculty in the Department of Commerce and Management Studies, Andhra University Campus, Vizianagaram. He participated in several National and International Seminars, Workshops, Symposias, FDP Programmes and published rich number of articles in reputed journals. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and Mobile : +91 94403 23606.
**Dr. N.V.S.SURYANARAYANA : The author is an renowned personality in the field of Education. Presently he is working as Faculty in the Department of Education, Andhra University Campus, Vizianagaram. He has rich experience in the field of Teacher Education about a decade at Post Degree and PG level. He is very much fascinated to Psychology and possess much interested in Educational Psychology and Guidance & Counseling. He participated in so many National and International Seminars, Workshops, Refresher Courses, Symposia’s and published so many articles in reputed Journals. He produced a number of M.Ed and M.Phil Dissertations.He wrote so many books on recent trends in education and innovative Psychological concepts. He is having Lifetime memberships in various alleged Associations. E-Mail: email@example.com, Mobile : +91 94403 48609.